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| Yemenite Jews and the American Colony
The following provides background to the fascinating story of the American Colony and the Yemenite Jews who arrived in Jerusalem from 1881.
Left: Jewish Yemenite Rabbi Shlomo. Image Credit: American Colony Archive.
Right: Jewish Yemenite Family. Image Credit: American Colony Archive.
The Spafford Family and The American Colony in Jerusalem
The American Colony was founded in Jerusalem in 1881, by a small group of 13 adults and 3 children, led by Anna and Horatio Spafford, who hoped to create, in the holy city, a Christian Utopian society.
Ten years earlier, the Spafford family, Presbyterian Christians, Anna, Horatio and their four daughters lived in Chicago and went through the overwhelming experience of the 1871 Great Fire in the city.
In 1873, Horatio, a successful lawyer, sent his wife and the four daughters to Europe for temporary relocation for the purpose of educating them there. They did not make it. The ship smashed into an English boat and drowned within minutes with the four girls.
The surviving mother, Anna, and her husband Horatio tried to reestablish their life again in Chicago. A new girl, Bertha, was born in 1878 and 2 years later a new baby boy was born. Unfortunately, the boy, the young Horatio, died in an epidemic of scarlet fever.
At this point the Spaffords, believing that the tragic experiences that they went through were a result of Divine punishment, left the Presbyterian Church.
In 1881, after the birth of their 2nd daughter Grace, they decided to seek new life in the holy city of Jerusalem where they would dedicate their lives to help the needy, regardless of their origin or faith. Indeed, in 1881 the Spaffords, together with some of Presbyterian Church members that joined them, left Chicago and moved to Jerusalem to create what was later called “The American Colony”.
A few years later, the community was extended by Swedes both from the USA and Sweden, all influenced by Anna Spafford’s spiritual leadership, to include around 150 members.
After the death of her parents Bertha took over the supervision of the American Colony.
Below you can find text from chapter 12 of pages 133-6 from her remarkable book “Our Jerusalem – An American Family in the Holy City, 1881-1949”. This text relates to the experience that the Spafford family had with Yemenite Jews who also arrived in Jerusalem in 1881.
Bertha, based on what they told her father, relates to the Yemenite Jews in this chapter as the Gadites, originated from Gad, one of the twelve biblical tribes of the Israelites.
Left – Bertha, Anna and Grace Spafford. Image Credit: https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3c37873/
Right – Bertha Spafford Vester. Image Credit: Library of Congress https://www.loc.gov/item/2007675293/.
Quote from “Our Jerusalem – An American Family in the Holy City, 1881-1949” by Bertha Sppaford
Chapter Twelve (Pages 133,134,135,136)
The Gadites entered our lives a few months after our arrival in Jerusalem, and until civil war divided Jerusalem into Arab and Jewish zones, with no intercourse between except bullets and bombs, they continued to get help from the American Colony.
One afternoon in May 1882 several of the Group, including my parents, went for a walk, and were attracted by a strange-looking company of people camping in the fields. The weather was hot, and they had made shelters from the sun out of odds and ends of cloth, sacking, and bits of matting. Father made inquiries through the help of an interpreter and found that they were Yemenite Jews recently arrived from Arabia.
They told Father about their immigration from Yemen and their arrival in Palestine. Suddenly, they said, without warning, a spirit seemed to fall on them and they began to speak about returning to the land of Israel. They were so convinced that this was the right and appointed time to return to Palestine that they sold their property and turned other convertible belongings into cash and started for the Promised Land. They said about five hundred had left Yena in Yemen. Most of them were uneducated in any way except the knowledge of their ancient Hebrew writings, and those, very likely, they recited by rote. As appears, they were simple folk, with little knowledge of the ways of the world outside of Yemen, and that is the same as saying “the days of Abraham.”
When they landed in Hedida (Hudaydah -yemen-yigal) on the coast of the Red Sea, they were cautioned by Jews not to continue their trip to Jerusalem and that if they did so it would be at peril of their lives. Some of the party were discouraged and returned to Yena. Others were misdirected and were taken to India, The rest went to Aden, where they embarked on a steamer for Jaffa, and came to Jerusalem before the Feast of Passover.
They told about the opposition and unfriendliness they had en countered from the Jerusalem Jews, who, they said, accused them of not being Jews but Arabs.
One reason, they said, for their rejection by the Jerusalem Jews was because they feared that these poor immigrants would swell the number of recipients of halukkah, or prayer money. Early in the seventeenth century, as a result of earthquakes, famine, and persecution, the economic position of the Jews in Palestine became critical, and the Jews of Venice came to their aid. They established a fund “to support the inhabitants of the Holy Land.” Later on the Jews of Poland, Bohemia, and Germany offered similar aid. This was the origin of the halukkah. The money was sent not so much for the purpose of charity as to enable Jewish scholars and students to study and interpret the Scriptures and Jewish holy books and to pray for the Jews in the Diaspora (Dispersion), at the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem, and in other holy cities of Palestine. The halukkah, as one could imagine, was soon abused. It only stopped, however, when World War I began in 1914 and no more money came to Palestine for that purpose.
In 1882, when the Yemenites arrived, those who had benefited from the generosity of others were unwilling to pass it on.
Father was interested in the Gadites at once. Their story about their unprovoked conviction that this was the time to return to Palestine coincided with what he felt sure was coming to pass the fulfillment of the prophecy of the return of the Jews to Palestine.
Also, Father was attracted by the classical purity of Semitic features of these Yemenite immigrants, so unlike the Jews he was accustomed to see in Jerusalem or in the United States. These people were distinctive: they had dark skin with dark hair and dark eyes. They wore side curls, according to the Mosaic law: “Ye shalt not round the corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard.” Otherwise their dress was Arabic. They had poise, and their movements were graceful, like those of the Bedouins. They were slender and somewhat undersized. Many of the women were beautiful, and the men, even the young men, looked venerable with their long beards. They regarded as true the tradition that they belonged to the tribe of Gad. They believed that they had not gone into captivity in Babylon, and that they had not returned at the time of Ezra and Nehemiah to rebuild the temple. For thousands of years they had remained in Yemen, hence their purity of race and feature.
The thirty-second chapter of Numbers tells how the children of Gad and the children of Reuben asked Moses to allow them to remain on the east side of Jordan, which country had “found favor in their sight” It goes on to tell how Moses rebuked them, saying,
“Shall your brethren go to war, and shall ye sit here?” Then Moses promised them that if they would go armed and help subdue the country, then “this land shall be your possession before the Lord.”
In the thirteenth chapter of Joshua, “when Joshua was stricken in years,” he gives instructions that the Gadites and the Reubenites and half the tribe of Menasseh should receive their inheritance “beyond the Jordan eastward even as Moses the servant of the Lord gave them.”
In the Apology of al Kindy, written at the court of al Mamun, A.D. 830, the author speaks of Medina as being a poor town, mostly inhabited by Jews. He also speaks of other tribes of Jews, one of which was deported to Syria.
Would it be too remote to conjecture that the remnants of these tribes should have wandered to and remained in Yemen? I know there are other theories about how Jews got there, and about their origin, but Father believed that “Blessed be he that enlargeth Gad,”
And the Group did everything in their power to help these immigrants. We called them Gadites from that time.
They were in dreadful need when we found them. Some of them had died of exposure and starvation during their long and uncomfortable trip; now malaria, typhoid, and dysentery were doing their work. They had to be helped, and quickly. No time was lost in getting relief started. The Group rented rooms, and the Gadites were installed in cooler and more sanitary quarters. Medical help was immediately brought. Mr. Steinharf s sister, an Orthodox Jewish woman, was engaged to purchase kosher meat, which, with vegetables and rice or cracked burghal (wheat) she made into a nutritious soup. Bread and soup were distributed once a day to all, with the addition of milk for the children and invalids. One of the American Colony members was always present at distribution time, to see that it was done equitably and well. The Gadites had a scribe among them who was a cripple. He could not use his arms and wrote the most beautiful Hebrew, holding a reed pen between his toes. He wrote a prayer for Father and his associates, which was brought one day and presented to Father as a thanksgiving offering. They said 1 that they repeated the prayer daily. I have it in my possession; it is written on a piece of parchment. The translation was made by Mr. Steinhart.
This amicable state of affairs continued for some time. Then the elders, who were the heads of the families, came as a delegation to Father. They filed upstairs to the large upper living room, looking solemn and sad, and smelling strongly of garlic. They told Father that certain Orthodox Jews, the very ones who had turned blind eyes and deaf ears to their entreaties for help when they arrived in such a pitiable state, were now persecuting them under the claim that they were violating the law by eating Christian food. Some of the older men and women had stopped eating, and in consequence were weak and ill. They made Father understand how vital this accusation, even if false, was to them, and they begged him to divide the money spent among them, instead of giving them the food.
Everyone knows how much more economical it is to make a large quantity of soup in one cauldron than in many individual pots; how ever, their request was granted. A bit more money was added to the original sum, and every Friday morning the heads of the Gadite families would appear at the American Colony and be given coins in proportion to the number of individuals to be fed.
They explained to Father that they were trying to learn the trades of the new country and hoped very soon not to need assistance. They had been goldsmiths and silversmiths of a crude sort in Yemen, but Jerusalem at that time had no appreciation or demand for that sort of handicraft.
One by one the elders came to tell us they had found work, to thank, us for what we had done, and to say they needed no further help. Father was impressed with the unspoiled integrity of these people.
The Colony continued giving help to the original group of Gadites in decreasing amounts until only a few old people and widows remained. But these came regularly once a week. Their number was swelled by newcomers and we still shared what we could with them: portions of dry rice, lentils, tea, coffee, and sugar, or other dry articles. After the British occupation of Palestine and the advent of the Zionist organization, with its resources and vast machinery to meet pressing necessities, after forty years our list of dependent Gadites was taken over by them. Even then, individuals continued to come to the doors of the American Colony to ask our help.
One night in June 1948 the American Colony had been under fire all night between the Jews west of us and the Arab legionaries east of us. In the morning a Yemenite Jew lay dead in the road be fore our gates. I recognized Hyam, a Yemenite from the “box colony” near the American Colony. He was one of those who had been receiving help from us for years.
For all this relief work the American Colony was using the money of its members. In the meantime Mr. Merrill had succeeded in adversely influencing our friends at home in the United States and our checks in this mission of mercy were not valid. This was the origin of our getting into debt.
In 1884, two years after their arrival, the Gadite elders were again at our door urgently asking to see Father. They were excited and agitated, for in Jerusalem, they said, they had caught sight of a “rabbi”** who had won their confidence back in Yemen, Arabia, and forcibly abducted their most ancient and precious manuscript, the Temanite Scroll……
Left: Yemenite Jew Rabbi Abram. Image Credit: American Colony Archive
Right: Jewish Yemenite Family with American Colony Member. Image Credit: American Colony Archive